kidnaping in Cameroon: implications and challenges for national security
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The general goal of this of this research was to examine the problem of kidnaping in Cameroon implications and challenges for national security More specifically this study seeked to find out Identify the major factors influencing kidnapping in Cameroon, to determine the impacts of kidnaping in to the society, to identify solutions to kidnaping in Cameroon. . This study made use Merton theory which argued when individuals are faced with a gap between their goals (usually monetary) and their current status, strain occurs. When individuals are faced with strain, Merton outlined five different ways that they respond
This study was guided by a few research questions which were mainly asking; what are the factors influencing the kidnapping in Cameroon? What are the impacts of kidnaping to the society? What are the possible solutions to kidnapping in Cameroon?
This Research uses the Quantitative method of research and employs the survey research design. In this study the only closed ended questions were used to collect and gather the responses of the various participants. The main source of data in this Research was both primary gotten from questionnaires and secondary from reviewed literature.
Key findings of this research in first place reveal that Kidnaping in Cameroon has wide varied impacts on the Cameroonian society and people some of which include Trauma, depression and much more. Secondly it was revealed that kidnaping in Cameroon is caused by a wide number of factors some of which include: corruption, poverty
Cameroon is currently plagued by numerous criminal behaviours, amongst which kidnapping traverses its territorial bounds (Alemika, 2013). Globally, the United Nations kidnaping indexes in 2016, showed that 82% adults and 16% children were kidnapped in Europe/Central Asia; 73% adults and 27% children were kidnapped in the Americas; 61% adults and 39% children were kidnapped in Southeast Asia/Pacific. These figures indicated that more adults were kidnapped in the abovementioned regions. In Africa however, 32% kidnappings affected adults while 68% were children, by 2016 (United Nations; cited in Odey, 2017). It is estimated at about 685 to 900 persons annually, across the country. Persistent mostly in the north region, where 79.8% of kidnappings have been estimated; its tentacles have spread nationwide (Toromade,2019). Concerns for kidnapping have been contentious as emerging trends in the felonious act have drawn attention, both nationally and internationally. Within the academia, concern is increasing recently because most victims tend to be captured in large numbers from learning institutions. Even though kidnapping is prevalent, and has detrimental effects on both developed and developing nations, it has a long history.
According to (Chidi 2014) the word kidnapping is derived from the word “kid” meaning; child and “nab” which means, to snatch. This has been in use since 1673 to mean the practice of stealing of children for use as servants or laborers in the American colonies. Today, the act of kidnapping has completely gone beyond the abduction of kids-it tentatively could be seen as any illegal capture or detention of a person or people against their will, regardless of age. Kidnapping is reported to have originated in pre-historic Thora. Specifically, the Bible records that Joseph was abducted by his Hebrew brothers Genesis, 40: 15 (New American Standard Bible). Tuner as cited in Odoemelam, and Omage (2013) stated that the literal origin of kidnapping is traceable to late 17th century. Also, in ancient Rome, the Emperor Constantine (AD, 315) became troubled by the incidence of kidnapping that he ordered death penalty as punishment for the crime. Consequently, the issue of kidnapping has been an extant problem. So that, other countries such as India, Mexico, Philippines and other parts of the world are reported to be also plagued by the unbecoming incidence of kidnapping (Abdulkabir, 2017). In Cameroon, records on the origin of kidnapping are a bit blur. It is however not a recent phenomenon. Osumah and Aghedo (2011) noted that historically, the rivalry generated by nineteenth-century slave trading was characterised by raids, piracy, abduction and kidnapping of able-bodied men in Cameroon. Since then, this malady has never ceased to take place. Kidnapping became alarming in Cameroon, early 2016, in the wake of the Anglophone crises where separatist rampantly kidnapped their hostages in large numbers w. Since then, the issue of kidnapping has spread to other parts of the country (Abraham, 2013; Odoemelam and Omage, 2013. Johnmary and Ndubuisi (2014) observed that kidnapping in Cameroon has become a strong threat to national peace and security. Abdulkabir (2017) corroborated this assertion by stating that: “the rate of kidnapping in Cameroon was geometrically increasing such that more than 2000 innocent people including girls, politicians, government officials, influential people and kings were reported to have been kidnapped between 2014 and 2019. As a result of this, Cameroon was ranked in the global index as one of the worst places to dwell in because of frequent kidnapping incidents”.
To accentuate this fact, global kidnap for ransom reports by an international security agency NYA24 (2018) observed incidences in the first quarter of the year 2017. Asia witnessed the highest incidence of kidnappings globally, with approximately 43% in 2017. Africa came second, and ranking topmost among countries in the region were South-Sudan followed by Somalia then Cameroon and recently Cameroon whose case is exacerbated by the Anglophone conflict. Africa had an index of 36%. Americas had 14%, Middle East and Europe had less than 10% of kidnap cases. The prevalence of kidnapping in Cameroon is not only substantively felt at present, but also in the past; even though rarely observed in historical tabloids. It could be deduced that the return of democracy may have engendered kidnapping of somewhat political opponents. (Johnmary & Ndubuisi, 2014). Nevertheless, for whatever justification, kidnapping has always not been without obvious causes. Generally, scholars have argued that kidnapping has emerged as a medium of engagement for economic survival, securing political stakes, ritual sacrifice and business advantage between rivals and co-competitors. Secondly, as alluded in the forgone, kidnapping is also said to emanate from political rivalry-politicians use some young and idle minds to attain their political interest, by kidnapping and suppressing contending opponents. At the other end of the continuum, some kidnappers are driven into this dastardly act in order to procure essential human body parts for rituals/sacrifices. Reasons for the sacrifice of individuals vary among: political or economic might, protection, appeasement and so on (Abdulkabir, 2017). Despite the dehumanizing feats in the nature of this devilish act, it has continued to spread its tentacle to all regions in Cameroon. Today, incessant kidnapping has grown into a major national problem. Its subject matter draws serious concern to both government policy makers, and non-governmental organizations, political and religious leaders, as well as all stakeholders interested in national advancement (Jeribe and Nlemchukwu, 2016). This work therefore empirically looks at the factors influencing kidnapping in Cameroon
Being a traversing phenomenon, kidnapping incurs victim’s oppression. However, literature has also identified various causative factors which propel perpetrators to include: economic, political, cultural, poverty and lack of gainful employment, among others. All of these social factors could have advanced the wave of kidnapping in Cameroon. Concerns are on which major factor drives kidnapping in the region. Kidnapping, has threatened social stability and even inter-group coexistence in Cameroon and. It threatens all and sundry within the Cameroon n society: residents and visitors, young and old, rich and poor, educated and uneducated, rulers and the ruled, politicians and non-politicians, law makers and even security operatives and so forth. Hitherto.
The trend and pattern of kidnapping were common amongst persons of high status. Recently, almost every social category is at risk of being kidnapped. Different forms of kidnapping patterns have surfaced in Cameroon. Concerns are therefore on what pattern or trend of kidnapping is more prevalent. Inimical consequences ranging from psychological trauma, health and bodily infirmities, social withdrawal, to financial losses and so forth; are some of the levels of devastation caused by kidnapping. While most times, the physiological effects may be borne by victims, the financial and psychosocial effects of kidnapping are being shared by relatives and well-wishers who may suffer consternations as to whether their loved ones (victims) might not be released, maimed, or even killed. Also, the entire community (society) is also not removed from the risk equation, as inimical consequences of kidnapping cause disheartening outcomes between release negotiators and abductors. Communities infested with the problem of kidnapping no longer feel secured, and social activities within such communities are usually in fright, hence individuals always would look over their shoulders thereby truncating most social activities. Recently patterns of kidnapping have Factors Influencing Kidnapping in, Cameroon .Theories have emerged thereby throwing concerned communities and authorities into confusion on what levels of fraught kidnapping trends pose on society. Governments at regional and state levels have adapted militaristic and non-kinetic approaches for addressing kidnapping. These include joint task force apprehension through mounting several check-points and amnesty programs which have not yielded desired results. Unfortunately, this unpleasant phenomenon has continued to ravage even more intensively, occurring almost frequently and intermittently in most parts of Cameroon. Against the backdrop of the largely unsuccessful militaristic and other local security initiatives that attempt to halt its occurrence within the country, there are however, concerns on how the problem of kidnapping may be resolved. It is against this backdrop which the study seeks to examine kidnapping in Cameroon of Plateau State, where empirical studies may have not been conducted in recent times on the menace.
The study seeks to provide answers to the following research questions:
How is kidnaping a national threat to security in Cameroon
1.3.1 Specific Research Questions
What are the factors influencing the kidnapping in Cameroon?
What are the impacts of kidnaping to the society?
What are the possible solutions to kidnapping in Cameroon?
This section presents the goals and purpose of this study
The main objective of this study is to assess factors influencing kidnapping in Cameroon.
- Identify the major factors influencing kidnapping in Cameroon.
- To determine the impacts of kidnaping in to the society.
- To identify solutions to kidnaping in Cameroon.
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