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the adaptation of touristic potentials on climate change

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Tourism activities   are  very  important  in the  Spanish  Mediterranean  coast  since  the  60s  have  been  described  as a highly  vulnerable  to  climate  change. Desertification  of  tourism  and  tourists  products  are  often  presented  as  a possible  strategy  for  adapting  to the  effect  of climate  change. The   touristic potentials include the coastal beaches, the wild life center, amongst   others. In Limbe, the  touristic  potentials  include Limbe  wildfire  center,  the  botanical  garden , the beaches, which attract  so many  visitors  form  different  areas  around  the  world.


Tourism is a travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The world tourism organization defines tourists as people who travel to and stay in places outside their environment for more than twenty – four (24) hours. Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity in 2008, there was over 922 million international tourists’ arrivals, with a growth of 19% as compared to 2007. International tourism receipts grew to US & 944 billion (euro 642 billion) in 2008 corresponding to an increase in real terms of 1.8%.

As one of the world’s largest and fastest growing industries, tourism’s dependence on the natural environment and climate mean that it is extremely vulnerable to, and could be dramatically affected by, climatic variability and change. However, the vulnerability of the tourism industry to change of climate is generally poorly understood by stake holders, and the adoption of appropriate adaptation strategies remains in the early stages. This study will investigates  the  adaptation strategies of touristic  potential  to climate change in Limbe. The level of destination vulnerability and the adoption of adaptation strategies in Torbay, England Data were obtained from 106 tourism businesses   in the area results showed that over 60% of tourism businesses in Torbay have already been affected increased storm intensity and frequency, and shifts in seasonality. These changes were also perceived as the greatest future threat to businesses. However, businesses often fail 10 recognize the role that a good environmental performance of their business could play in minimizing the negative impacts of climatic variability and change.

The tourism industry is greatly affected by climate change but it also makes a significant contribution to Green House Gas (GHG) emission especially due to transportation of passengers, and infrastructure (accommodation). The data released by world tourism organization (2008) revealed carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in three tourism sectors: transportation, accommodation and leisure tourist activities. The organization estimates that emissions from national and international sources generated by tourism in these three sectors of the production chain, represent around 4.9% of global GHG emissions.

According to the document ‘’climate change and Tourism Responding to Global challenges’’ prepared by the world tourism organization (UNWTO) in partnership with the United Nations Environment program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WNO) resulting from the 2nd international conference on climate change and tourism (Davos, Switzer – land, 1-3 October 2007, climate change will affect tourism destinations, their competitiveness and sustainability in four major areas: Direct climate impacts, indirect impact of environmental change impacts of mobility policies and the reduction of tourism and indirect impacts of social change (Brazil, 2008). This is the case with Limbe where tourists will ceased to visit the area especially in the rainy season.

Weather  and  climate  have a  substantial  influence  on tourism  sector and  are  very  important  for  recreational  and  outdoor  activities. This climatic condition have influence the temporal distribution of tourists throughout the year.  Becken and  Wilson asked  the inter-relationship  between  climate  and  tourism  in insufficiently understood  as  well as little  scratched. For  Algeria, to  date  this  relationship has not  been  a major  field for  research  practically  fewer studies  based  on a  deterministic  reproach, assessing  the  effect  of   climate   condition  upon  human  thermal  comfort are  available, The flow of tourists  could be  mainly  affected by  extreme  climatic  conditions as  for the  2003  heat wave in  Europe . The  severe  climatic  condition lead  to  the  death  of 15.000 in France  and  were  responsible  per  major  shirt  in traditional  tourists  flows.

           Since the 1950s, the global market for international travel and tourism has exhibited uninterrupted growth. After the end of the cold war, the sector accelerated more rapidly than the global economy, with and average annual growth rate of this period that Africa experience its initial boom in tourism. Africa’s tourism-based revenues increased by more than 50 percent in 1990s – from & 203 billion to & 307 billion while the total number of international arrivals on the continent ballooned by roughly 300 percent from 607 million in 1990 to 2602 million in 2000.

          These trends have continued into the 21st century, due to economic growth and improvement in political stability and openness across the continents in political stability and openness across the continent. In fact, during the global financial crisis of 2007 – 2008 Africa was the only region in the world that continue to experience growth in the tourism industry: arrivals in the region increased by 307 percent in 2008 – 2009 compared to the net decline of 403 percent in the rest of the world. African Development Bank (AfDB) estimates that, in 2015 Africa received 6205 million visitors, contributed 9.1 million direct jobs in travel and tourism sectors and generated & 39.2 billion in international tourism receipts.

        While the international tourist arrivals on the whole continent increased by nearly 36 million between 2000 and 2017, the sub Saharan region has experience the lion’s share of this growth (24.7 million) North Africa already had a relatively well – developed tourism industry. In 1995, the five (5) Northern countries that is, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia received nearly as many international visitors annually as the 48 sub – Saharan countries combined 10.5 million versus 13 million respectively.

           Tourism is an income generating activity and participates in the economic growth of many countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, Spain and Italy recorded a contribution of more than 20% to the GDP (gross domestic product) from the touristic sector. Touristic activity in these countries relies mostly on climatic, ecological and environmental advantages, all the three (3) being strongly vulnerable to climate change effects such as temperature rising, seasonal rainfall, rising of sea level, snowing and biodiversity disappearance.

           Cameroon   as one of the  touristic countries in central Africa is situated at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea and the Central Africa. The country stretches over an area of 475442 km2 with 466050km2of continental area and 9600km2 of maritime and coastal area and has a population of about 26 million inhabitants. Cameroon is considered as Africa in miniature and has rich and varied touristic potential. Despite these assets, the country is not and important touristic destination due to the  poorly quality of touristic product offered for example the insufficient touristic equipment and infrastructures, the weak promotion of tourism, lack of professionalism in the activity high cost of destination and uncertain mean of communication. Despite these weaknesses, its contribute to GDP which is very important in Cameroon’s economy. Also, it contributes to the improvement of the touristic sites surrounding population livelihood and therefore to the fight against poverty.

            Cameroon is a significant country but remains under the 500,000 visitors mark necessary to by eligible by the World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO). The country possesses exceptional resources such as beaches, high plateau and mountains, dense forests, forest reserves in south East and center, Natural parks, artificial dam and the landscape in the North.

      Tourism remains a matter for a class of wealthy population  who come for holidays or for business. To achieve its goals, Cameroon set up a sectorial strategy for the development of tourism. Among the objectives assigned for the reflection there is the promotion and the organization of interior tourism, the increase of the occupation rate in accommodation establishment, the improvement in the quality of services provided to tourists. But the reinforcement and the improvement of accommodation and transport facilities that will accompany this development are conditioned or will be determine by the physical and climatic condition of the environment.   

     Limbe  as  the study  area  has  numerous  touristic  potential,  for  example  the black  sandy  beaches  due  to the  eruption  of  mount  Cameroon  which lastly  erupted  in 2000. In this  beaches,  people  swim, stroll and relax  along the   various  beaches  and  view  the  incredible waves. Another potential touristic potential is  the  botanical  garden created  by the  German in 1992. This area  serve as a  study  center  and  acclimatization  for  plant  species  such as  rubber,  coffee,  cocoa,  banana  and  quinine. The  garden  cover   an area of 200  hectares and  is  now  use  extremely  for  education, science  and  tourism. Also, there is  the  Limbe  Wildfire  center  which  was  established  in 1993 as a cooperation  project between  the  Cameroonian  government  and  NGO’s  Pandrillus foundation with  the  aim of   providing  shelter  to the  primates  of the region. The  Limbe wildfire   center today  provide  shelter  to about  15  species  of  primates  which include  gorrillas, chimpanzees  Pandrillus,  several  species of  birds,  reptiles. This center receive 45,000 visitors in a year  it is  important  to  know   that the  out  break  of the  COVID  19 virus  has  reduce  the  number  of  visitors. Also,  some   of the  animals  are  allergy to  certain  diseases  due to the  out break of   COVID 19, they   have  short  down  the  wild  life  center  in other to  protect  the different animal  species.

    In addition, Limbe  and its surroundings  have other  important  touristic  sites  such as  Bakingili  which is  a wonderful  resort  in Ideana .  Its  small  regional port  with  beautiful  beaches  and  lots of fishing  canoes also pulls tourist to this sites.

1.2 Statement of problem

            It is to know the different touristic potentials and their adaptation strategies to climate change in Limbe.

          Before the coming of the colonial masters, Limbe was a touristic site due to the presence of the sea. Although the touristic potential was present, the  population concentrate more on their business along the coast than to develop the touristic attraction.

           As time passes and with the coming of the colonial master, the coastal beaches  in Cameroon was develop especially that of  Limbe and Kribi.  Due to the development of these potential, people from different areas within Cameroon and out of the country started visiting the nation which lead to the problem of congestion in the town of Limbe.   Also, the problem of accommodation set in since most hotels lack sufficient rooms to accommodation dates the tourists and also the hotels lacks sufficient water.

        Furthermore, insecurity is a serious problem when it comes to tourism in Cameroon and in Limbe in particular. This is as a result of increase in population and the current Anglophone crisis which has scarce so many tourists to visit the touristic area.

In addition, accessibility is another problem faced by touristic industry in Cameroon and in Limbe in particular. Most touristic potentials lack access roads which makes it very difficult for tourists to visit such places.

1.3.  Research questions

1.3.1 Main question

What are the adaptation strategies of touristic potential to climate change?

1.3.2 Specific questions.

-What are consequences and effects of climate change on touristic potentials in Limbe ?

– What are the causes of climate change on touristic potentials in Limbe?

–  What are the mitigation of climate change on touristic potentials in Limbe.?

1.4 Research objectives

1.4.1. Main objective

-To evaluate   the adaptation of touristic potentials on climate change.

1.4.1. Specific objectives

– To examine the consequences and effect of  climate variability  to touristic potentials

– To identify the mitigation strategies of touristic potentials to climate change.

– To assess the causes of climate change of touristic potentials.



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