Environmental effects of industrial pollution with a case study of Bonaberi-Douala
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The study looked at industrial pollution and waste management in Cameroon, with a focus on Bonaberi-Douala as a case study. The research’s main goal was to look into how industrial pollution in the environment of Bonaberi has impacted the livelihood and welfare of the locals, with specific goals such as examining how the pattern of settlement around the Bonaberi industrial zone has impacted the general sanity of the environment and gaining access to general waste disposal and management methods used by industry. With the use of mostly questionnaires and little interview, the research combined two methodologies, quantitative and qualitative methods, to achieve the advantages of both in complementing each other by closing the gaps created by each. According to the findings, 80 percent of respondents cited ill health as a result of industrial pollution, with 10% citing odor and smell as a contributing factor. Contamination of drinking water, soil infertility, and global warming were among the other effects mentioned by the respondents. Malaria affects 48 percent of respondents, while typhoid affects 42 percent.
1.1 Background to the Study
Rapid urbanization has resulted in dense populations in Cameroon’s cities in recent years. As the world’s population grows, the quality of the urban environment plays an increasingly important role in the society’s public health welfare on a variety of issues, including the long-term provision of safe water, proper sanitation, and waste disposal.
According to the World Health Organization, urbanization (W.H.O). According to the 2012 report, urban areas are increasingly being seen as places that provide opportunities for individuals and families to live better lives, as well as a healthy living environment through improved access to essential services. Population growth and urbanization have outpaced infrastructure development and environmental management in many developing countries. Large volumes of waste have been generated as a result of population growth in cities, which is linked to industrialization and urbanization. However, most cities in developing countries do not have the capacity for efficient waste collection and management thereby leading to improper disposal of solid waste and resultant land pollution.
According to the World Health Organization (2013) report, rapid, unplanned and unsustainable approaches to urban development are making cities in developing countries key focal points for emerging environmental health hazards. Some of the health challenges associated with urbanization are related to water and the environment, including land pollution. Urban authorities, therefore, need to be vigilant with regards to monitoring, prevention and control of health risks and hazards associated with land pollution.
Land pollution, according to Nathanson (2013), is defined as the dumping of solid or liquid waste materials on land or underground in a manner that can contaminate soil and ground water, endanger public health, and cause unsightly conditions and nuisances. It degrades land quality and productivity for agriculture, forestry, and construction, as well as posing a number of health risks. The United Nations Environmental Programme, the Earth Summit, Agenda 21, Rio + 20, the Convention to Combat Desertification, and other UN conferences and fora have discussed global efforts to reduce land pollution alongside other environmental issues.
Environmental pollution dates back to the Stone Age, when fire was invented. Some archaeologists have discovered soot left over from fires on cave ceilings, providing archeological evidence. However, this was not a serious problem because it had little impact on the surrounding ecosystem at the time. People began to notice that the amount of smoke around them was increasing later in the 13th century, and it was then that pollution in the environment was first acknowledged.
The term Pollution originated between1350-1400 from the Latin word “Pollutio” which means defilement. Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products to the environment or the “introduction of contaminants or toxicants into the natural environment that causes adverse change”. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. It has been realized that the word “pollution” concerns everybody and people need to hear about it because it concerns them, even though some ignore. Pollution occurs when something or any substance, which doesn’t naturally belong to an ecosystem if introduced into it. The foreign substance introduced into the environment which causes the pollution is called a pollutant. As the concentration of the pollutant increases in the environment, the intensity of pollution also increases. Pollution is mostly caused by human actions, but in some cases may be caused by natural disasters. It is highly detrimental to all living things on our planet, and even though it is detrimental, it is still ignored in many places around the world.
Industrial pollution attracts both intense regulatory attention and periodically, public anxiety and concern. Many industrial installations are a source of diverse range of pollutants leading to potentially significant but disputed health impacts (Bhopal et al 1998, Pless-Mulloli et al 1998, Dunn and Kingham 1996). When set alongside other negative impacts such as noise, odour and in some cases, stigmatization of both places and local people, we will realize that industrial sites may become a significant burden on our communities. This burden often fails to be compensated by the economic benefits of these companies after their polluting activities.
Located on the Atlantic coastline of the Republic of Cameroon, the Douala-Bonaberi Industrial Zone enjoyed and still enjoys the fastest rate of urbanization in the country. A total of about 236 major manufacturing industries are located along the coast of Cameroon. Among them, over 90% are located in the Douala-Bonaberi Industrial Zone. These industries include: food processing, textiles and accessories, electricity, water and gas, mechanical and electrical appliances, chemical and mining, building and transport material, paper and pulp, wood processing, agro-industrial and diverse manufacturing plants. Rapid expansion in the industrial zone has provoked certain observable environmental problems on the lagoon complex and the wetland.
The effects are impaired water quality in the contamination of surface and ground water sources, public health hazards, wetland loss, subsidence, flooding, etc. Industrial pollutants such as lead, cadmium, mercury, aluminum, etc. that springs from industrial actions on the coast of Cameroon seems to have inflicted a wide range of problems and predicaments to security, health and environmental excellence. Streams that flow from the Bassa Industrial Zone into the Atlantic Ocean, on the coast of Cameroon, are highly polluted. Fongwe et al (2000) stated that the coastal layout listed the highest grade of aluminum contamination in Cameroon in the month of May and June in the year 2000. Researchers discovered that aluminum waste contributed a greater part to the infections people had in this industrial zone.
Coastal activities such as industry, agriculture, sand mining, coastal urbanization, deforestation, etc., have altered the natural conditions and processes, degrading coastal resources and habitats. The effect has serious socio-economic consequences. Environmentalists have since publicized the worsening state of pollution in the city of Douala and its environment. The experts say this is due to the increasing concentration of industrial plants and poor handling of industrial wastes especially by petroleum companies that deal with petroleum, plastics, metals and chemical products. In alliance with global agencies and non-governmental groups, Cameroon has taken significant initiatives to curb industrial pollution.
Demographic explosion, poor waste management and the ever declining margin between industrial zones and inhabited areas have caused severe coastal, environmental and societal issues. Although household waste plays an important role in pollution, there is sufficient indication that industrial waste alone is estimated at about 2187 metric tons per year in biochemical oxygen demand, with a corresponding 48000 metric tons per year in suspended solid in the Cameroon’s coastline cosmopolitan of Douala alone (Fongwe et al, 2000).
Uncontrolled urbanization by the government and poor waste management systems by corporations has resulted to water, air and land depreciation in Douala. Heavy industrial water users produce large quantities of wastes products and they rely on watercourses to dispose the wastes. Most industries operating in Douala discharge untreated and toxic effluents directly on open residential lands and into canals, streams, and rivers that end up causing widespread deterioration in the water quality and the health of the coastal ecosystem. Coastal and upstream non-point sources of pollution from agricultural and hazardous waste sites constitute sources of contamination of both surface and groundwater sources.
Marine pollution, on the coast of Douala, is very complex in nature. It which stems from land wastes, oil spills, sewage water, invasive species and metal wastes from mines. The oil spills come from the National Corporation for Petroleum Storage and Distribution Hydrocarbon plants located on the coasts, and factories located in the Douala and Bonaberi straits. Millions of tons of fossil fuel waste, oil and other wastes are discharged from ships into the sea and ocean on a daily basis. As regard to the industrial pollution along the coastline of Cameroon, the primary concern is that the high level of industrialization of the city of Douala and its environs, with the inevitable generation of industrial effluents might lead to severe biological consequences in the coastal aquatic environment.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT.
People moved to Bonaberi as a result of an increase in population in other parts of Douala, such as Bonamousadi, Makepe, Bepanda, and Bonaprizo, as well as the desire to obtain small plots of land to cultivate domestic crops. Bonaberi was originally an industrial zone, home to industries such as Mayor, Telca cocoa, Alpicam, Cimencam, La pasta, Nestle, Isembek, and OK foods,
Industrial pollution endangers the environment’s health and well-being (physical and social). Because the environment is the only setting in which society interacts, it is critical to implement effective pollution management strategies for these industries in order to improve the welfare and well-being of the people who live in these areas.
This is due to the fact that pollution in industrial areas poses a serious threat to the environment; for example, contamination of air, portable water, and water bodies such as streams and rivers, degradation of agricultural land, and reduction of audibility due to machine noise, to name a few, all have negative consequences for people who live in such areas.
Prior to adequate management of pollution to guarantee the welfare and wellbeing of the environment, it will be necessary to know; the reason for the unhealthy environment in Bonaber-Douala, types of pollutants, diseases caused by pollution and control measures of pollution for a healthy society.
1.3.1 Main Question
How has industrial pollution on the environment of Bonaberi-Douala affected the livelihood and welfare of the inhabitants?
1.3.2 Specific Questions
- How has the pattern of settlement of Bonaberi affected the general sanity of the environment?
- How do industries Bonaberi dispose and manage their wastes and what are their working policies?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
- Industrial pollution is very harmful to the community of Bonaberi as it account for more than 80% of all air and land borne diseases in the environment.
- Recycling of waste can serve as a remedy for pollution so as to avoid the improper dumping of waste products in the environment.
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.5.1 Main Objective
- To investigate how industrial pollution on the environment of Bonaberi-Douala has affected the livelihood and welfare of the inhabitants
1.5.2 Specific Objectives
- To examine how the pattern of settlement around the Bonaberi industrial zone has affected the sanity of the environment.
- To access the general ways of waste disposal and management by industries around the Bonaberi industrial zone and their working policies