HYDROGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUNDWATER IN AQUIFERS IN SOUZA, LITTORAL REGION, CAMEROON
No of pages
|MS Word & PDF|
The custom academic work that we provide is a powerful tool that will facilitate and boost your coursework, grades and examination results. Professionalism is at the core of our dealings with clients
For more project materials and info!
Call us here
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Groundwater is stored in geologic formations called aquifers and has been exploited for domestic, livestock and irrigation purposes since the earliest time (Clark, 1985; Bowers, 1997). A great majority of the world’s population depends on groundwater source like bore holes, wells and springs for daily needs (Kemper, 2004; Tamungang et al., 2016; Ketchemen et al., 2017). Its assessment on a spatial and temporal scale is imperative (Ako et al.,2012; Wirmvem et al.,2013; Kamtchueng et al.,2014). Inadequate supply of pipe-borne water pushes the population to depend on groundwater (Fonteh et al., 2017; Akoachere et al., 2019). The international atomic energy agency (IAHS) (1997) stipulates that we must be able to observe how water quality changes with time as a function of both natural and anthropogenic stresses (Wotany et al., 2013; Takem et al., 2015).
As a result of growing population, industrialization without adequate measures of waste disposal, agricultural activities, the groundwater environment is being polluted with an ever-increasing number of pollutants (Waheed et al., 2011, Wotany et al., 2013).
Currently, more than 300 million people in Africa do not have access to safe drinking water many of whom are among the poor. Increase reliable water supplies will depend on the community development of groundwater. Careful characterization of the resource is required to guide investment in water supply and to manage the resource to minimize environmental degradation and wide spread depletion (MacDonald et al., 2012).
According to Ako et al. (2009), in Sub-Saharan Africa, 42% of the population is still without improved water and sanitation coverage. 1.8 million People die every year from water borne diseases with 90% of whom are children under the age of 5, attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate hygiene and sanitation. Geochemical studies from groundwater and surface water can provide a better understanding of a potential water quality variation due to geology and land use.
Groundwater quality is based on the behaviour of physical and chemical parameters that are influenced by geological formations, atmospheric precipitation, inland surface water, and geochemical processes as they are in contact with the rock and the various anthropogenic activities (Katte et al., 2003; Molua and Lambi, 2006; Wotany et al; 2013).
Cameroon is richly blessed with large amount of water resources. It is currently considered as a country with the second highest volume of water in Africa after the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ako, 2011). Groundwater constitutes 21.5% (57 billion m3) of this resource and plays a very important role in socio-economic life of the country. In developing countries including Cameroon where ground water has become the main source of drinking water, they are faced with the issue of sustainability and maintenance.
Trace elements are environmentally hazardous substances that pollute and are principally of concern due to their persistence toxicity and bioaccumulation setbacks since they cannot be degraded or destroyed (Deruibe et al., 2007; Akoachere et al., 2019; Ntube et al., 2022).
In other to utilize and protect valuable water resources effectively and predict the change in groundwater environments, it’s necessary to understand the characteristics of the groundwater and its evolution under natural water circulation processes (Edmunds and Ma, 2006; Fantong et al., 2016; Ngoupayou et al., 2019).
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT