THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE TRADITIONAL FOOD OF THE NJUNGO-MBO PEOPLE
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Traditional foods are no new; since ancient times traditional foods have been a motivation for people to attend most events, although only among a tiny minority of the general public.
Traditional events especially festivals and traditional marriages play an important role in promoting traditional foods, most particularly Koki for the Njungo-mbo people. Globalisation now has now brought in some changes in these traditional foods such as: the addition of Maggie in Koki and many other.
The main objective of the study seeks to examine how globalisation has affected the traditional food of the njungo-mbo people. Data were collected with the use of primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected with the use of observation methods, questionnaires and interview guides.
Secondary data were collected through unpublished and published materials from the internet, magazines, journals and articles.
Data were analysed using descriptive statistics using frequency, percentages, charts and tables. Findings reveal that the njungo-mbo people have several traditional foods but most of them now have different tastes and methods of cooking. Based on this, set of research questions what could be the challenges and recommended solutions.
The public should be sensitised on the importance of Traditional food so as to promote the traditional food of the njungo-mbo people. The study also identified problems and some solutions to the study which are discussed on the chapters below.
Globalisation refers to a reduction in barriers to the cross-border movement of goods, services and capital; an increased flow of commodities, technologies, information, financial capital, modes of distribution and marketing; and, to a certain extent, migration of peoples and labour (Shetty, 2003).
globalisation began a century earlier, circa 1870which gathered momentum until 1914 when it came to an abrupt end(Nayyar, 2006).
The period from 1870 to 1914 was the age of laissez-faire. The movement of goods, capital and labour across national boundaries was almost unhindered. Government intervention in economic activity was minimal.
The openness of economies that characterised this era was associated with a rapid expansion in trade, investment and finance across borders. In 1913, the growth in world trade at 3.9% per annum was much faster than 138 D.
The growth in world output at 2.5% per annum (Maddison, 1989). Even among these sub-sets of countries, there were significant variations.
The export GDP ratios in some small European economies such as Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland were much higher than in the larger European economies such as France, Germany and Italy.
This expansion in international trade was attributable to trade liberalisation (Kenwood and Lougheed, 1994).
The latter half was concentrated in a small group of newly industrializing countries in North America and Europe, for some of which it constituted as much as 50% of gross domestic investment (Panic, 1992).
The world economy has experienced progressive international economic integration since 1950. However, there has been a marked acceleration in this process of globalisation during the last quarter of the twentieth century.
The late nineteenth and early twentieth century witnessed a significant integration of international financial markets to provide a channel for portfolio investment flows(Nayyar, 2006). The second half of the twentieth century witnessed a phenomenal expansion in international trade flows. World exports increased from $61bn in 1950 to $883bn in 1975 and $6338bn in 2000.
The last quarter of the twentieth century witnessed explosive growth in international finance like the expansion of international banking. The movement of finance across national boundaries is enormous so much so that, in terms of magnitudes, trade and investment are now dwarfed by finance(Nayyar, 2006).
Globalisation has had significant effects on the food supply in the Philippines (Pedro,Barba and Candelaria, 2001). The most important of these is the increase in the importation of agricultural commodities.
Traditional meals sold by street food vendors include fried and boiled snacks, packed snacks, soups, local cakes, grilled food (mostly meat), sandwiches, eggs, fruit and bakery products, Rice, Wheat/flour, Pulses, Liquid milk (litres), Eggs (number), Milkfat, Edible oils, Flesh foods, Vegetables, Leafy vegetables, Mangoes, Bananas (number), Lemons (number), Sugar/jaggery, Tealeaf, Biscuits, Salted refreshments and Prepared sweets as well as hot and cold beverages (Guzman, et al, 1987). Globalization has led to the spread of the Philippine’s culture across the globe most especially on their traditional food. For example cereals, fats and oils foods are the most important exported food to the tourism market.The growing importance of philippine traditional meals (bread and bakery products) in the Filipino diet have contributed 50% of their domestic supply. Street food meal provides a reference adult male (20-39 years old) with 21 percent of the RDA for energy and 28 percent of the RDA for protein.
Traditional food is a key part of all cultures, a major element of global intangible heritage and an increasingly important attraction for tourists. Traditional foods provide a platform for local economic development, which can be strengthened by the use of food experiences for branding and marketing destinations (Chigozie, 2013).
Everett and Aitchison, (2008) added that traditional foods help in the retention and development of regional identity, enhancement of environmental awareness and sustainability, celebrating the local and contesting global standardization, the conservation of traditional heritage, skills and ways of life, increasing tourist spending and traditional food typology to assist marketing.
Traditional foods are important to the sustainability of their native regions because they are often keystone assets to food security, economic stability and quality nutrition (Trolio, et al., 2016). The effects of globalization have been largely negative for indigenous foods.
Different social and political movements, including colonization and the Green Revolution, have drastically changed agricultural practices by placing a higher value on the production of export crops.
These changes are continuing today with trade practices, urbanization and global diffusion of western tastes and foodstuffs. Despite some negative consequences of globalization, the most productive being harnessed is the global trends for the revival of indigenous foods and livelihoods. Modern agricultural technologies supported by globalisation have the potential to bring them back (Trolio, et al., 2016).
Traditional foods are an incipient trait of the foodscape of Nakuru County (Zocchi and Fontefrancesco, 2020). Even though restaurants in Kenya are aimed at an international clientele, Kenyan cuisine still holds a marginal position and the consumption of ethnic products such as: omena and mursik. Kwenya is endowed with traditional cuisines such as: Brown chapatti, Brown ugali, Camel broth, Chapati, Githeri, Kahurura (Pumpkin), Kuku kienieji, Kunde (Cowpea), Managu (African nightshade), Mandaazi, Matumbo, Minji(Pea), Mitoo (Slender leaf), Mukimo, Mursik, Mutura, Ndengu (Mung bean), Nderema (Malabar spinach), Nduma (Taro), Ngwaci, Njahe (Lab lab bean), Nyamachoma, Omena, Oxtail soup, Pilau rice, Saget (Spider plant), Samosa, Terere (Amaranthus), Tilapia, Tumbukiza (Mutton stew), Ugali Stachy and Uj (Zocchi and Fontefrancesco, 2020).
The phenomenon of globalization is having a major impact on Kenyas’ traditional foods such as: changes in food systems resulting in greater availability and diversity of food, although access to this food is by no means universal.
Many of these changes are closely associated with urbanization, increasing incomes, market liberalization and foreign direct investment (Kennedy, et al 2004).
In Cameroon, nutrition plays an integral role in the optimal functioning of the body compared to malnutrition (including undernutrition and overnutrition) which is a health impairment resulting from a deﬁciency, excess or imbalance of nutrients (Koueboua et al., 2013).
Cameroon has over 117 types of traditional dishes namely: Banane-malaxée, Bean-stew, Bouillie-maïs, Bouillie infantile, Bouillie infantile, Cassava-fufu, Cassava-pudding, Chicken-stew, Condrès, Corn chaff, Corn/groundnutpudding, Coucouma, Couscous/gombo, Dried ﬁsh-groundnut soup, Ebobolo, Eru, Eru/fufu, Etondo-non-Salé, Etondo-Salé, Fian-Ngon, Fian-Ongoualik, Fian-Owondo, Fian-tomate, Fish-stew, Fufu-corn, Gniri/Follere, Gniri/Lalo, Gniri/Tasba, Green vegetable sauce, Groundnut-pudding, Groundnut-soup, Huckleberry-pumpkin leaves soup, Igname-malaxé, Huckleberry-sauce, Igname-malaxé, Ikouan, Keleng-keleng, Koki-beans, Koki-corn, Koki/plantain, Kpem, Kwem/manioc, Kwemp-non-salé, Kwemp-salé, Legumes sauté/ manioc, Macabo rape/arachide among others (Koueboua et al., 2013). These traditional dishes are affected by globalization as there is a change in the way these traditional meals are been cooked, serve and eaten. There is a similar scenario with the NjungoNbo people as there are presently experiencing the impacts of globalization on their traditional meals.
Generally, globalisation has played a role on the impact of traditional food in Cameroon, especially the Mbo culture.
Change in taste of traditional foods: For example Koki. They are one of the most attractive factors that pull people to attend most events. This is for the fact that they have a unique taste. Most of the dishes have lost their taste, due to the way they are been prepared and the complements use in preparing them. For example; the use of grinding machines instead of mortals to grind koki beans. Inter-cultural interaction has also had a negative impact on the foods due to the addition of complements like onions and Maggi, of which that’s the purpose of Coco leaves. The continuous use of the ancestral method will help maintain the quality and taste and value of the Mbo dishes.
There is an increasing preference of western food instead of traditional food by the njungo mbo people. For instance; the use of cooked pork and plantain served on warmed plantain leaves during ceremonies have been replaced with fried fish and chicken and sandwich. Most foreign tourists and the inhabitants find it difficult in adapting to the traditional foods since it has a long and difficult cooking process.
So there will rather prepare western dishes during events than traditional food. In most events like traditional marriages, death ceremonies, traditional meetings and chief coronation where you are expected to see all varieties of traditional dishes, due to the preference given to western food, you won’t be able to see them.
The likes of cakes(traditional marriages), fried chicken and bread ( death ceremonies) fried rice and chicken and many other foreign foods such as salad which was never seen in such occasions but now is very common because globalisation has played a role in the impact of traditional foods.
What is the impact of globalisation on traditional foods during events of the Njungo-Mbo people?
The study is guided by the following research questions.
What are the various traditional foods of the Njungo-Mbo people?
How has globalisation impacted the traditional food of the Njungo-Mbo people during events?
What are the constraints on the provision of traditional foods of the Njungo-Mbo people during events?
What measures can be put in place to reinstate the values of traditional foods of the Mbo people during events
This study seeks to examine how globalisation has affected the traditional foods of the Mbo people during events.
- To identify the various traditional foods of the Njungo-Mbo people?
- To analyse how traditional food has been modified by globalisation.
- To identify the constraints involved in the provision of traditional food to the njungo-mbo people.
- Propose possible measures to reinstate the values of traditional food of the Mbo people during events.