The influence of Loan Default on the Financial Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Cameroon
|Banking and Finance|
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This study seeks to bring out the effect of loan default on the financial performance of microfinance institution in Cameroon.
The quantitative and qualitative research design was use in the study and the sample size used in the study was 10 employees.
Research study shows that loan default has a significant impact on the financial performance of microfinance institution in Cameroon.
Also the findings shows that Unics plc limbe branch has put in place various strategies to over come loan within the institutions
Research design used was descriptive survey design. Sampling technique adopted was convenient sampling technique. Data was processed through SPSS, presented the form of frequencies, percentages and tables and analyzed using Regression Analysis.
The study findings revealed that NPLs and Capital Adequacy have significant impact on Loan default as well as loan delinquency on the performance of MFIs.
The research reveals some of the causes of loan default in MFIs, they include: poor monitoring of loans, inadequate training of staff and multiple borrowings by members.
The study concluded that MFIs should provide appropriate training to their staff and supervision to their members regarding the use of their loans.
Furthermore, MFIs should have clear and effective credit or lending policies and procedures and regularly reviewed
International organizations are coming to the realization that Microfinance Institutions are veritable and effective channels to ensure programme implementation effectiveness, particularly in poverty alleviation projects and firsthand knowledge of the needs and interest of the poor (Okumadewa, 1998).
According to Chossudovsky (1998), the World Bank Sustainable Banking with the Poor project (SBP) in mid-1996 estimated that there were more than 1,000 microfinance institutions in over 100 countries, each having a minimum of 1,000 members and with 3 years of experience.
Microfinance Institution may be defined as any financial institution which offers not only small loans to microenterprises, SMEs, groups and individuals but also provides other financial services like savings, insurance, and investment advice including even training programmes to its clients.
The issue of loan delinquency/default among banks and Microfinance Institutions has been discussed in many public lectures and fora as one of the reasons why commercial banks have not shown much interest in financing Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
According to Balogun and Alimi (1990), loan default can be defined as the inability of a borrower to fulfil his or her loan obligation when due.
High default rates in MSMEs lending should be of major concern to policy makers in developing countries, because of its unintended negative impacts on MSMEs financing. Microfinance institutions all over the world including Cameroon faced with the challenge of loan default/delinquency.
The chance that a microfinance institution (MFI) may not receive its money back from borrowers (plus interest) is the most common and often the most serious vulnerability in a microfinance institution (Warue, 2012).
According to her since most microloans are unsecured, loan default can quickly spread from a handful of loans to a significant portion of the portfolio.
This contagious effect is worsened by the fact that microfinance portfolios often have a high concentration in certain business sectors. Consequently, many clients may be exposed to the same external threats such as lack of demand for client’s products, livestock disease outbreak, bad weather and many others.
These factors create volatility in microloan portfolio quality, heightening importance of controlling credit risk.
In this regard, MFIs need a monitoring system that highlights repayment problems clearly and quickly, so that loan officers and their supervisors can focus on delinquency (repayment rate) before it gets out of hand.
In lending services, a default is the failure to pay back a loan.
The Microfinance Institutions in the Republic of Cameroon including the private microfinance institutions, rural and community banks, and some Commercial banks are faced with loan delinquency/default, which may have long-term consequences if not addressed.
The sustainability of microfinance institutions depends largely on their ability to collect their loans as efficiently and effectively as possible. In other words, to be financially viable or sustainable, microfinance institutions must ensure high portfolio quality based on 100% repayment, or at worst low default, cost recovery and efficient lending.
However, of late, there have been complains by the microfinance institutions regarding high rate of default by their clients; which presupposes that most microfinance institutions are not achieving the internationally accepted standard portfolio at risk of 3%, which is a cause for concern because of its consequences on businesses, individuals, and the economy of Cameroon at large.
Default have started creeping deeply into the operations of microfinance institutions in Cameroon hence the study into the causes and control of loan default in microfinance institutions in Cameroon.
The study generally investigated the causes and control of loan default in microfinance institutions in Cameroon. The study also seeks to come out with the means by which MFI such as Unics plc will reduce the level of loan default to the barest minimum (below 5%) if not to eliminate it.
The objectives to achieve are;
To assess the level of loan default in MFIs.
To investigate the impact of NPLs on the performance of MFIs.
To find out the impact of capital adequacy on MFIs performance.
The study attempted to address the following questions:
What is the level of loan default in MFIs?
To what extend does non-performing loans affect MFIs performance?
How does capital adequacy affect MFIs performance?
For the purpose of this work the following hypothesis will be tested in the null form:
NPL has no impact on the performance of MFIs
Capital adequacy has no impact on MFIs
Governments in developing countries, including Cameroon for the past decade have been seeking for panacea to reduce poverty and improve the living standards of its people.
The economies of these countries could be linked to the performance of self-employed individuals as well as Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) operating as major businesses. These
businesses are confronted with a problem of mobilizing enough capital as traditional bank see them to be unattractive when it comes to credit delivery.
Microfinance therefore presents itself as the best way of delivering loans because borrowers (Individuals and SMEs) are too poor to have much in the way of marketable assets.
MFIs in recent times have come in to provide non-collateralized credit to SMEs and individuals who are considered as active poor in microfinance circles.
According to Otero1999), providing capital to the poor (individuals and SMEs) to combat poverty as an aim of micro finance, also seeks to create institutions that deliver financial services to the poor, who are continuously ignored by the formal banking sector
Loans disbursed to clients in the form of micro credit should be repaid on schedule. Prompt repayment is aimed at ensuring institutional sustainability and viability of MFIs. This study seeks to unveil means by which clients of MFIs will be credit worthy by avoiding loan default.
Being credit worthy is equivalent to possessing a credit reserve (Baker, 1973). Poor people do not necessarily want loans now, they want the opportunity to get a loan if and when they need it (Kimenyi et al, 1978).
Thus, undertaking this study will undoubtedly improve the operations of MFIs such as Unics plc in relation to loan disbursement and repayment on schedule